HTML5 Introduction (Visit our HTML5 PlayGround!)


HTML5 is the next generation of HTML.


What is HTML5?

HTML5 will be the new standard for HTML, XHTML, and the HTML DOM.

The previous version of HTML came in 1999. The web has changed a lot since then.

HTML5 is still a work in progress. However, most modern browsers have some HTML5 support.


How Did HTML5 Get Started?

HTML5 is a cooperation between the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and the Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG).

WHATWG was working with web forms and applications, and W3C was working with XHTML 2.0. In 2006, they decided to cooperate and create a new version of HTML.

Some rules for HTML5 were established:

  • New features should be based on HTML, CSS, DOM, and JavaScript
  • Reduce the need for external plugins (like Flash)
  • Better error handling
  • More markup to replace scripting
  • HTML5 should be device independent
  • The development process should be visible to the public

New Features

Some of the most interesting new features in HTML5:

  • The canvas element for drawing
  • The video and audio elements for media playback
  • Better support for local offline storage
  • New content specific elements, like article, footer, header, nav, section
  • New form controls, like calendar, date, time, email, url, search

Browser Support

HTML5 is not yet an official standard, and no browsers have full HTML5 support.

But all major browsers (Safari, Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer) continue to add new HTML5 features to their latest versions.


HTML5 New Elements


New Elements in HTML5

The internet has changed a lot since HTML 4.01 became a standard in 1999.

Today, some elements in HTML 4.01 are obsolete, never used, or not used the way they were intended to. These elements are deleted or re-written in HTML5.

To better handle today's internet use, HTML5 also includes new elements for better structure, drawing, media content, and better form handling.


New Markup Elements

New elements for better structure:

Tag Description
<article> For external content, like text from a news-article, blog, forum, or any other content from an external source
<aside> For content aside from the content it is placed in. The aside content should be related to the surrounding content
<command> A button, or a radiobutton, or a checkbox
<details> For describing details about a document, or parts of a document
<summary> A caption, or summary, inside the details element
<figure> For grouping a section of stand-alone content, could be a video
<figcaption> The caption of the figure section
<footer> For a footer of a document or section, could include the name of the author, the date of the document, contact information, or copyright information
<header> For an introduction of a document or section, could include navigation
<hgroup> For a section of headings, using <h1> to <h6>, where the largest is the main heading of the section, and the others are sub-headings
<mark> For text that should be highlighted
<meter> For a measurement, used only if the maximum and minimum values are known
<nav> For a section of navigation
<progress> The state of a work in progress
<ruby> For ruby annotation (Chinese notes or characters)
<rt> For explanation of the ruby annotation
<rp> What to show browsers that do not support the ruby element
<section> For a section in a document. Such as chapters, headers, footers, or any other sections of the document
<time> For defining a time or a date, or both
<wbr> Word break. For defining a line-break opportunity.


New Media Elements

HTML5 provides a new standard for media content:

Tag Description
<audio> For multimedia content, sounds, music or other audio streams
<video> For video content, such as a movie clip or other video streams
<source> For media resources for media elements, defined inside video or audio elements
<embed> For embedded content, such as a plug-in


The Canvas Element

The canvas element uses JavaScript to make drawings on a web page.

Tag Description
<canvas> For making graphics with a script


New Form Elements

HTML5 offers more form elements, with more functionality:

Tag Description
<datalist> A list of options for input values
<keygen> Generate keys to authenticate users
<output> For different types of output, such as output written by a script

New Input Type Attribute Values

Also, the input element's type attribute has many new values, for better input control before sending it to the server:

Type Description
tel The input value is of type telephone number
search The input field is a search field
url The input value is a URL
email The input value is one or more email addresses
datetime The input value is a date and/or time
date The input value is a date
month The input value is a month
week The input value is a week
time The input value is of type time
datetime-local The input value is a local date/time
number The input value is a number
range The input value is a number in a given range
color The input value is a hexadecimal color, like #FF8800

HTML5 Tag Reference


HTML5

HTML5 improves interoperability and reduces development costs by making precise rules on how to handle all HTML elements, and how to recover from errors.

Some of the new features in HTML5 are functions for embedding audio, video, graphics, client-side data storage, and interactive documents. HTML5 also contains new elements like <nav>, <header>, <footer>, and <figure>.

The HTML5 working group includes AOL, Apple, Google, IBM, Microsoft, Mozilla, Nokia, Opera, and many hundreds of other vendors.

Note: HTML5 is not a W3C recommendation yet!


Ordered Alphabetically

New : New tags in HTML5.

Tag Description
<!--...--> Defines a comment
<!DOCTYPE>  Defines the document type
<a> Defines a hyperlink
<abbr> Defines an abbreviation
<acronym> Not supported in HTML5.
<address> Defines an address element
<applet> Not supported in HTML5.
<area> Defines an area inside an image map
<article>New Defines an article
<aside>New Defines content aside from the page content
<audio>New Defines sound content
<b> Defines bold text
<base> Defines a base URL for all the links in a page
<basefont> Not supported in HTML5.
<bdo> Defines the direction of text display
<big> Not supported in HTML5.
<blockquote> Defines a long quotation
<body> Defines the body element
<br> Inserts a single line break
<button> Defines a push button
<canvas>New Defines graphics
<caption> Defines a table caption
<center> Not supported in HTML5.
<cite> Defines a citation
<code> Defines computer code text
<col> Defines attributes for table columns 
<colgroup> Defines groups of table columns
<command>New Defines a command button
<datalist>New Defines a dropdown list
<dd> Defines a definition description
<del> Defines deleted text
<details>New Defines details of an element
<dfn> Defines a definition term
<dir> Not supported in HTML5.
<div> Defines a section in a document
<dl> Defines a definition list
<dt> Defines a definition term
<em> Defines emphasized text 
<embed>New Defines external interactive content or plugin
<fieldset> Defines a fieldset
<figcaption>New Defines the caption of a figure element
<figure>New Defines a group of media content, and their caption
<font> Not supported in HTML5.
<footer>New Defines a footer for a section or page
<form> Defines a form 
<frame> Not supported in HTML5.
<frameset> Not supported in HTML5.
<h1> to <h6> Defines header 1 to header 6
<head> Defines information about the document
<header>New Defines a header for a section or page
<hgroup>New Defines information about a section in a document
<hr> Defines a horizontal rule
<html> Defines an html document
<i> Defines italic text
<iframe> Defines an inline sub window (frame)
<img> Defines an image
<input> Defines an input field
<ins> Defines inserted text
<keygen>New Defines a generated key in a form
<kbd> Defines keyboard text
<label> Defines a label for a form control
<legend> Defines a title in a fieldset
<li> Defines a list item
<link> Defines a resource reference
<map> Defines an image map 
<mark>New Defines marked text
<menu> Defines a menu list
<meta> Defines meta information
<meter>New Defines measurement within a predefined range
<nav>New Defines navigation links
<noframes> Not supported in HTML5.
<noscript> Defines a noscript section
<object> Defines an embedded object
<ol> Defines an ordered list
<optgroup> Defines an option group
<option> Defines an option in a drop-down list
<output>New Defines some types of output
<p> Defines a paragraph
<param> Defines a parameter for an object
<pre> Defines preformatted text
<progress>New Defines progress of a task of any kind
<q> Defines a short quotation
<rp>New Used in ruby annotations to define what to show browsers that to not support the ruby element.
<rt>New Defines explanation to ruby annotations.
<ruby>New Defines ruby annotations
<s> Defines text that is no longer correct
<samp> Defines sample computer code
<script> Defines a script
<section>New Defines a section
<select> Defines a selectable list
<small> Defines small text
<source>New Defines media resources
<span> Defines a section in a document
<strike> Not supported in HTML5.
<strong> Defines strong text
<style> Defines a style definition
<sub> Defines subscripted text
<summary>New Defines the header of a "detail" element
<sup> Defines superscripted text
<table> Defines a table
<tbody> Defines a table body
<td> Defines a table cell
<textarea> Defines a text area
<tfoot> Defines a table footer
<th> Defines a table header
<thead> Defines a table header
<time>New Defines a date/time
<title> Defines the document title
<tr> Defines a table row
<tt> Not supported in HTML5.
<u> Not supported in HTML5.
<ul> Defines an unordered list
<var> Defines a variable
<video>New Defines a video
<wbr>New Defines a possible line-break
<xmp> Not supported in HTML5.

HTML5 Global Attributes


The attributes listed below are supported by all HTML 5 tags, with a few exceptions.


HTML5 Global Attributes

New : New global attributes in HTML5.

Attribute Value Description
accesskey character Specifies a keyboard shortcut to access an element
class classname Specifies a classname for an element (used for stylesheets)
contenteditableNew true
false
Specifies if the user is allowed to edit the content or not
contextmenuNew menu_id Specifies the context menu for an element
dir ltr
rtl
Specifies the text direction for the content in an element
draggableNew true
false
auto
Specifies whether or not a user is allowed to drag an element
dropzoneNew copy
move
link
Specifies what happens when dragged items/data is dropped in the element
hiddenNew hidden Specifies that the element is not relevant. Hidden elements are not displayed
id id Specifies a unique id for an element
lang language_code Specifies a language code for the content in an element
spellcheckNew true
false
Specifies if the element must have its spelling and grammar checked
style style_definition Specifies an inline style for an element
tabindex number Specifies the tab order of an element
title text Specifies extra information about an element

HTML5 provides a standard for playing audio.


HTML5 Audio


HTML5 provides a standard for playing audio.


Audio on the Web

Until now, there has never been a standard for playing audio on a web page.

Today, most audio are played through a plugin (like flash). However, not all browsers have the same plugins.

HTML5 specifies a standard way to include audio, with the audio element.

The audio element can play sound files, or an audio stream.


Audio Formats

Currently, there are 3 supported formats for the audio element:

Format IE 9 Firefox 3.5 Opera 10.5 Chrome 3.0 Safari 3.0
Ogg Vorbis No Yes Yes Yes No
MP3 Yes No No Yes Yes
Wav No Yes Yes No Yes


How It Works

To play an audio file in HTML5, this is all you need:

<audio src="song.ogg" controls="controls">
</audio>

The control attribute is for adding play, pause, and volume controls.

Insert content between the <audio> and </audio> tags for browsers that do not support the audio element:

Example

<audio src="song.ogg" controls="controls">
Your browser does not support the audio element.
</audio>

The example above uses an Ogg file, and will work in Firefox, Opera and Chrome.

To make the audio work in Internet Explorer and Safari, add an audio file of the type MP3.

The audio element allows multiple source elements. Source elements can link to different audio files. The browser will use the first recognized format:

Example

<audio controls="controls">
  <source src="song.ogg" type="audio/ogg" />
  <source src="song.mp3" type="audio/mpeg" />
Your browser does not support the audio element.
</audio>



All <audio> Attributes

Attribute Value Description
autoplay autoplay Specifies that the audio will start playing as soon as it is ready.
controls controls Specifies that controls will be displayed, such as a play button.
loop loop Specifies that the audio will start playing again (looping) when it reaches the end
preload preload Specifies that the audio will be loaded at page load, and ready to run. Ignored if autoplay is present.
src url Specifies the URL of the audio to play

HTML5 Video


Many modern websites shows videos. HTML5 provides a standard for showing them.

Check if your browser supports HTML5 video



Video on the Web

Until now, there has never been a standard for showing video on a web page.

Today, most videos are shown through a plugin (like flash). However, not all browsers have the same plugins.

HTML5 specifies a standard way to include video, with the video element.


Video Formats

Currently, there are 3 supported video formats for the video element:

Format IE Firefox Opera Chrome Safari
Ogg No 3.5+ 10.5+ 5.0+ No
MPEG 4 9.0+ No No 5.0+ 3.0+
WebM No No 10.6+ 6.0+ No
  • Ogg = Ogg files with Theora video codec and Vorbis audio codec
  • MPEG4 = MPEG 4 files with H.264 video codec and AAC audio codec
  • WebM = WebM files with VP8 video codec and Vorbis audio codec

How It Works

To show a video in HTML5, this is all you need:

<video src="movie.ogg" controls="controls">
</video>

The control attribute is for adding play, pause, and volume controls.

It is also always a good idea to include the width and height attributes.

Insert content between the <video> and </video> tags for browsers that do not support the video element:

Example

<video src="movie.ogg" width="320" height="240" controls="controls">
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>

The example above uses an Ogg file, and will work in Firefox, Opera and Chrome.

To make the video work in Internet Explorer, Safari and future versions of Chrome, we must add a MPEG4 and WebM file.

The video element allows multiple source elements. Source elements can link to different video files. The browser will use the first recognized format:

Example

<video width="320" height="240" controls="controls">
  <source src="movie.ogg" type="video/ogg" />
  <source src="movie.mp4" type="video/mp4" />
  <source src="movie.webm" type="video/webm" />
Your browser does not support the video tag.
</video>



All <video> Attributes

Attribute Value Description
audio muted Defining the default state of the the audio. Currently, only "muted" is allowed
autoplay autoplay If present, then the video will start playing as soon as it is ready
controls controls If present, controls will be displayed, such as a play button
height pixels Sets the height of the video player
loop loop If present, the video will start over again, every time it is finished
poster url Specifies the URL of an image representing the video
preload preload If present, the video will be loaded at page load, and ready to run. Ignored if "autoplay" is present
src url The URL of the video to play
width pixels Sets the width of the video player

HTML5 Canvas


The canvas element is used to draw graphics on a web page.



What is Canvas?

The HTML5 canvas element uses JavaScript to draw graphics on a web page.

A canvas is a rectangular area, and you control every pixel of it.

The canvas element has several methods for drawing paths, boxes, circles, characters, and adding images.


Create a Canvas Element

Add a canvas element to the HTML5 page.

Specify the id, width, and height of the element:

<canvas id="myCanvas" width="200" height="100"></canvas>


Draw With JavaScript

The canvas element has no drawing abilities of its own. All drawing must be done inside a JavaScript:

<script type="text/javascript">
var c=document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var cxt=c.getContext("2d");
cxt.fillStyle="#FF0000";
cxt.fillRect(0,0,150,75);
</script>

JavaScript uses the id to find the canvas element:

var c=document.getElementById("myCanvas");

Then, create a context object:

var cxt=c.getContext("2d");

The getContext("2d") object is a built-in HTML5 object, with many methods to draw paths, boxes, circles, characters, images and more.

The next two lines draws a red rectangle:

cxt.fillStyle="#FF0000";
cxt.fillRect(0,0,150,75);

The fillStyle method makes it red, and the fillRect method specifies the shape, position, and size.


Understanding Coordinates

The fillRect method above had the parameters (0,0,150,75).

This means: Draw a 150x75 rectangle on the canvas, starting at the top left corner (0,0).

The canvas' X and Y coordinates are used to position drawings on the canvas.

Mouse over the rectangle below to see the coordinates:

  X  
Y
 

More Canvas Examples

Below are more examples of drawing on the canvas element:

Example - Line

Define a starting point in position (0,0), and an ending point in position (200,100). Then use the stroke() method to actually draw the line:

Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag.

JavaScript:

var c = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var ctx = c.getContext("2d");
ctx.moveTo(0,0);
ctx.lineTo(200,100);
ctx.stroke();



Example - Circle

Create a circle with the arc() method:

Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag.

JavaScript:

var c = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var ctx = c.getContext("2d");
ctx.beginPath();
ctx.arc(95,50,40,0,2*Math.PI);
ctx.stroke();



Example - Gradient

Create a linear gradient. Fill rectangle with the gradient:

Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag.

JavaScript:

var c = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var ctx = c.getContext("2d");

// Create gradient
var grd = ctx.createLinearGradient(0,0,200,0);
grd.addColorStop(0,"red");
grd.addColorStop(1,"white");

// Fill with gradient
ctx.fillStyle = grd;
ctx.fillRect(10,10,150,80);



Example - Image

Image to use:

The Scream

Example

Draw the image onto the canvas:

Your browser does not support the HTML5 canvas tag.

JavaScript:

var c = document.getElementById("myCanvas");
var ctx = c.getContext("2d");
var img = document.getElementById("scream");
ctx.drawImage(img,10,10);


HTML5 Web Storage


Storing Data on the Client

HTML5 offers two new objects for storing data on the client:

  • localStorage - stores data with no time limit
  • sessionStorage - stores data for one session

Earlier, this was done with cookies. Cookies are not suitable for large amounts of data, because they are passed on by EVERY request to the server, making it very slow and in-effective.

In HTML5, the data is NOT passed on by every server request, but used ONLY when asked for. It is possible to store large amounts of data without affecting the website's performance.

The data is stored in different areas for different websites, and a website can only access data stored by itself.

HTML5 uses JavaScript to store and access the data.


The localStorage Object

The localStorage object stores the data with no time limit. The data will be available the next day, week, or year.

How to create and access a localStorage:

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
localStorage.lastname="Smith";
document.write(localStorage.lastname);
</script>

The following example counts the number of times a user has visited a page:

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
if (localStorage.pagecount)
  {
  localStorage.pagecount=Number(localStorage.pagecount) +1;
  }
else
  {
  localStorage.pagecount=1;
  }
document.write("Visits "+ localStorage.pagecount + " time(s).");
</script>



The sessionStorage Object

The sessionStorage object stores the data for one session. The data is deleted when the user closes the browser window.

How to create and access a sessionStorage:

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
sessionStorage.lastname="Smith";
document.write(sessionStorage.lastname);
</script>

The following example counts the number of times a user has visited a page, in the current session:

Example

<script type="text/javascript">
if (sessionStorage.pagecount)
  {
  sessionStorage.pagecount=Number(sessionStorage.pagecount) +1;
  }
else
  {
  sessionStorage.pagecount=1;
  }
document.write("Visits "+sessionStorage.pagecount+" time(s) this session.");
</script>


HTML5 Input Types


HTML5 New Input Types

HTML5 has several new input types for forms. These new features allow for better input control and validation.

This chapter covers the new input types:

  • email
  • url
  • number
  • range
  • Date pickers (date, month, week, time, datetime, datetime-local)
  • search
  • color

Browser Support

Input type IE Firefox Opera Chrome Safari
email No No 9.0 No No
url No No 9.0 No No
number No No 9.0 7.0 No
range No No 9.0 4.0 4.0
Date pickers No No 9.0 No No
search No No 11.0 No No
color No No 11.0 No No

Note: Opera has the best support for the new input types. However, you can already start using them in all major browsers. If they are not supported, they will behave as regular text fields.


Input Type - email

The email type is used for input fields that should contain an e-mail address.

The value of the email field is automatically validated when the form is submitted.

Example

E-mail: <input type="email" name="user_email" />

Tip: Safari on the iPhone recognizes the email input type, and changes the on-screen keyboard to match it (adds @ and .com options).


Input Type - url

The url type is used for input fields that should contain a URL address.

The value of the url field is automatically validated when the form is submitted.

Example

Homepage: <input type="url" name="user_url" />

Tip: Safari on the iPhone recognizes the url input type, and changes the on-screen keyboard to match it (adds .com option).


Input Type - number

The number type is used for input fields that should contain a numeric value.

You can also set restrictions on what numbers are accepted:

Example

Points: <input type="number" name="points" min="1" max="10" />

Use the following attributes to specify restrictions for the number type:

Attribute Value Description
max number Specifies the maximum value allowed
min number Specifies the minimum value allowed
step number Specifies legal number intervals (if step="3", legal numbers could be -3,0,3,6, etc)
value number Specifies the default value

Tip: Safari on the iPhone recognizes the number input type, and changes the on-screen keyboard to match it (shows numbers).


Input Type - range

The range type is used for input fields that should contain a value from a range of numbers.

The range type is displayed as a slider bar.

You can also set restrictions on what numbers are accepted:

Example

<input type="range" name="points" min="1" max="10" />

Use the following attributes to specify restrictions for the range type:

Attribute Value Description
max number Specifies the maximum value allowed
min number Specifies the minimum value allowed
step number Specifies legal number intervals (if step="3", legal numbers could be -3,0,3,6, etc)
value number Specifies the default value


Input Type - Date Pickers

HTML5 has several new input types for selecting date and time:

  • date - Selects date, month and year
  • month - Selects month and year
  • week - Selects week and year
  • time - Selects time (hour and minute)
  • datetime - Selects time, date, month and year (UTC time)
  • datetime-local - Selects time, date, month and year (local time)

The following example allows you to select a date from a calendar:

Example

Date: <input type="date" name="user_date" />


Input Type - search

The search type is used for search fields, like a site search, or Google search.

The search field behaves like a regular text field.


Input Type - color

The color type is used for input fields that should contain a color.

This input type will allow you to select a color from a color picker:

Example

Color: <input type="color" name="user_color" />

HTML5 Form Elements


HTML5 New Form Elements

HTML5 has several new elements and attributes for forms.

This chapter covers the new form elements:

  • datalist
  • keygen
  • output

Browser Support

Attribute IE Firefox Opera Chrome Safari
datalist No No 9.5 No No
keygen No No 10.5 3.0 No
output No No 9.5 No No


datalist Element

The datalist element specifies a list of options for an input field.

The list is created with option elements inside the datalist.

To bind a datalist to an input field, let the list attribute of the input field refer to the id of the datalist:

Example

Webpage: <input type="url" list="url_list" name="link" />
<datalist id="url_list">
<option label="W3Schools" value="http://www.w3schools.com" />
<option label="Google" value="http://www.google.com" />
<option label="Microsoft" value="http://www.microsoft.com" />
</datalist>

Tip: The option elements should always have a value attribute.


keygen Element

The purpose of the keygen element is to provide a secure way to authenticate users.

The keygen element is a key-pair generator. When a form is submitted, two keys are generated, one private and one public.

The private key is stored on the client, and the public key is sent to the server. The public key could be used to generate a client certificate to authenticate the user in the future.

Currently, the browser support for this element is not good enough to be a useful security standard.

Example

<form action="demo_form.asp" method="get">
Username: <input type="text" name="usr_name" />
Encryption: <keygen name="security" />
<input type="submit" />
</form>



output Element

The output element is used for different types of output, like calculations or script output:

Example

<output id="result" onforminput="resCalc()"></output>

HTML5 Form Attributes


HTML5 New Form Attributes

This chapter covers some of the new attributes for <form> and <input>.

New form attributes:

  • autocomplete
  • novalidate

New input attributes:

  • autocomplete
  • autofocus
  • form
  • form overrides (formaction, formenctype, formmethod, formnovalidate, formtarget)
  • height and width
  • list
  • min, max and step
  • multiple
  • pattern (regexp)
  • placeholder
  • required

Browser Support

Attribute IE Firefox Opera Chrome Safari
autocomplete 8.0 3.5 9.5 3.0 4.0
autofocus No No 10.0 3.0 4.0
form No No 9.5 No No
form overrides No No 10.5 No No
height and width 8.0 3.5  9.5 3.0 4.0
list No No 9.5 No No
min, max and step No No 9.5 3.0 No
multiple No 3.5 11.0 3.0 4.0
novalidate No No 11.0 No No
pattern No No 9.5 3.0 No
placeholder No No 11.0 3.0 3.0
required No No 9.5 3.0 No


autocomplete Attribute

The autocomplete attribute specifies that the form or input field should have an autocomplete function.

Note: The autocomplete attribute works with <form>, and the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, password, datepickers, range, and color.

When the user starts to type in an autocomplete field, the browser should display options to fill in the field:

Example

<form action="demo_form.asp" method="get" autocomplete="on">
First name: <input type="text" name="fname" /><br />
Last name: <input type="text" name="lname" /><br />
E-mail: <input type="email" name="email" autocomplete="off" /><br />
<input type="submit" />
</form>

Note: In some browsers you may need to activate the autocomplete function for this to work.


autofocus Attribute

The autofocus attribute specifies that a field should automatically get focus when a page is loaded.

Note: The autofocus attribute works with all <input> types.

Example

User name: <input type="text" name="user_name"  autofocus="autofocus" />



form Attribute

The form attribute specifies one or more forms the input field belongs to.

Note: The form attribute works with all <input> types.

The form attribute must refer to the id of the form it belongs to:

Example

<form action="demo_form.asp" method="get" id="user_form">
First name:<input type="text" name="fname" />
<input type="submit" />
</form>
Last name: <input type="text" name="lname" form="user_form" />

Note: To refer to more than one form, use a space-separated list.  


Form Override Attributes

The form override attributes allow you to override some of the attributes set for the form element.

The form override attributes are:

  • formaction - Overrides the form action attribute
  • formenctype - Overrides the form enctype attribute
  • formmethod - Overrides the form method attribute
  • formnovalidate - Overrides the form novalidate attribute
  • formtarget - Overrides the form target attribute

Note: The form override attributes works with the following <input> types: submit and image.

Example

<form action="demo_form.asp" method="get" id="user_form">
E-mail: <input type="email" name="userid" /><br />
<input type="submit" value="Submit" />
<br />
<input type="submit" formaction="demo_admin.asp" value="Submit as admin" />
<br />
<input type="submit" formnovalidate="true"
value="Submit without validation" />
<br />
</form>

Note: These attributes are helpful for creating different submit buttons.


height and width Attributes

The height and width attributes specifies the height and width of the image used for the input type image.

Note: The height and width attributes only works with <input> type: image.

Example

<input type="image" src="img_submit.gif" width="24" height="24" />



list Attribute

The list attribute specifies a datalist for an input field. A datalist is a list of options for an input field.

Note: The list attribute works with the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, date pickers, number, range, and color.

Example

Webpage: <input type="url" list="url_list" name="link" />
<datalist id="url_list">
<option label="W3Schools" value="http://www.w3schools.com" />
<option label="Google" value="http://www.google.com" />
<option label="Microsoft" value="http://www.microsoft.com" />
</datalist>



min, max and step Attributes

The min, max and step attributes are used to specify restrictions for input types containing numbers or dates.

The max attribute specifies the maximum value allowed for the input field.

The min attribute specifies the minimum value allowed for the input field.

The step attribute specifies the legal number intervals for the input field (if step="3", legal numbers could be -3,0,3,6, etc).

Note: The min, max, and step attributes works with the following <input> types: date pickers, number, and range.

The example below shows a numeric field that accepts values between 0 and 10, with a step of 3 (legal numbers are 0, 3, 6 and 9):

Example

Points: <input type="number" name="points" min="0" max="10" step="3" />



multiple Attribute

The multiple attribute specifies that multiple values can be selected for an input field.

Note: The multiple attribute works with the following <input> types: email, and file.

Example

Select images: <input type="file" name="img" multiple="multiple" />



novalidate Attribute

The novalidate attribute specifies that the form or input field should not be validated when submitted.

If this attribute is present the form will not validate form input.

Note: The novalidate attribute works with: <form> and the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, password, date pickers, range, and color.

Example

<form action="demo_form.asp" novalidate="novalidate">
E-mail: <input type="email" name="user_email" />
<input type="submit" />
</form>



pattern Attribute

The pattern attribute specifies a pattern used to validate an input field.

The pattern is a regular expression.

Note: The pattern attribute works with the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, and password

The example below shows a text field that can only contain three letters (no numbers or special characters):

Example

Country code: <input type="text" name="country_code"
pattern="[A-z]{3}" title="Three letter country code" />



placeholder Attribute

The placeholder attribute provides a hint that describes the expected value of an input field.

Note: The placeholder attribute works with the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, and password

The hint is displayed in the input field when it is empty, and disappears when the field gets focus:

Example

<input type="search" name="user_search"  placeholder="Search W3Schools" />



required Attribute

The required attribute specifies that an input field must be filled out before submitting.

Note: The required attribute works with the following <input> types: text, search, url, telephone, email, password, date pickers, number, checkbox, radio, and file.

Example

Name: <input type="text" name="usr_name" required="required" />


HTML5 Event Attributes


Global Event Attributes

HTML 4 added the ability to let events trigger actions in a browser, like starting a JavaScript when a user clicks on an element.

Below are the global event attributes that can be inserted into HTML5 elements to define event actions.

New : New event attributes in HTML5.


Window Event Attributes

Events triggered for the window object.

Applies to the <body> tag:

Attribute Value Description
onafterprintNew script Script to be run after the document is printed
onbeforeprintNew script Script to be run before the document is printed
onbeforeonloadNew script Script to be run before the document loads
onblur script Script to be run when the window loses focus
onerrorNew script Script to be run when an error occur
onfocus script Script to be run when the window gets focus
onhaschangeNew script Script to be run when the document has change
onload script Script to be run when the document loads
onmessageNew script Script to be run when the message is triggered
onofflineNew script Script to be run when the document goes offline
ononlineNew script Script to be run when the document comes online
onpagehideNew script Script to be run when the window is hidden
onpageshowNew script Script to be run when the window becomes visible
onpopstateNew script Script to be run when the window's history changes
onredoNew script Script to be run when the document performs a redo
onresizeNew script Script to be run when the window is resized
onstorageNew script Script to be run when a document loads
onundoNew script Script to be run when a document performs an undo
onunloadNew script Script to be run when the user leaves the document


Form Events

Events triggered by actions inside a HTML form.

Applies to all HTML5 elements, but is most common in form elements:

Attribute Value Description
onblur script  Script to be run when an element loses focus
onchange script Script to be run when an element changes
oncontextmenuNew script  Script to be run when a context menu is triggered
onfocus script  Script to be run when an element gets focus
onformchangeNew script  Script to be run when a form changes
onforminputNew script  Script to be run when a form gets user input
oninputNew script  Script to be run when an element gets user input
oninvalidNew script  Script to be run when an element is invalid
onreset script  Script to be run when a form is reset
Not supported in HTML5
onselect script  Script to be run when an element is selected
onsubmit script Script to be run when a form is submitted


Keyboard Events

Events triggered by a keyboard.

Applies to all HTML5 elements.

Attribute Value Description
onkeydown script  Script to be run when a key is pressed
onkeypress script  Script to be run when a key is pressed and released
onkeyup script  Script to be run when a key is released


Mouse Events

Events triggered by a mouse, or similar user actions:

Applies to all HTML5 elements.

Attribute Value Description
onclick script  Script to be run on a mouse click
ondblclick script  Script to be run on a mouse double-click
ondragNew script  Script to be run when an element is dragged
ondragendNew script  Script to be run at the end of a drag operation
ondragenterNew script  Script to be run when an element has been dragged to a valid drop target
ondragleaveNew script  Script to be run when an element leaves a valid drop target
ondragoverNew script  Script to be run when an element is being dragged over a valid drop target
ondragstartNew script  Script to be run at the start of a drag operation
ondropNew script  Script to be run when dragged element is being dropped
onmousedown script  Script to be run when a mouse button is pressed
onmousemove script  Script to be run when the mouse pointer moves
onmouseout script Script to be run when the mouse pointer moves out of an element
onmouseover script Script to be run when the mouse pointer moves over an element
onmouseup script  Script to be run when a mouse button is released
onmousewheelNew script  Script to be run when the mouse wheel is being rotated
onscrollNew script  Script to be run when an element's scrollbar is being scrolled


Media Events

Events triggered by medias like videos, images and audio.

Applies to all HTML5 elements, but is most common in media elements, such as audio, embed, img, object, and video:

Attribute Value Description
onabort script  Script to be run on an abort event
oncanplayNew script Script to be run when media can start play, but might has to stop for buffering
oncanplaythroughNew script Script to be run when media can be played to the end, without stopping for buffering
ondurationchangeNew script  Script to be run when the length of the media is changed
onemptiedNew script  Script to be run when a media resource element suddenly becomes empty (network errors, errors on load etc.)
onendedNew script  Script to be run when media has reach the end
onerrorNew script  Script to be run when an error occurs during the loading of an element
onloadeddataNew script Script to be run when media data is loaded
onloadedmetadataNew script Script to be run when the duration and other media data of a media element is loaded
onloadstartNew script Script to be run when the browser starts to load the media data
onpauseNew script  Script to be run when media data is paused
onplayNew script  Script to be run when media data is going to start playing
onplayingNew script  Script to be run when media data has start playing
onprogressNew script  Script to be run when the browser is fetching the media data
onratechangeNew script  Script to be run when the media data's playing rate has changed
onreadystatechangeNew script  Script to be run when the ready-state changes
onseekedNew script  Script to be run when a media element's seeking attribute is no longer true, and the seeking has ended
onseekingNew script  Script to be run when a media element's seeking attribute is true, and the seeking has begun
onstalledNew script  Script to be run when there is an error in fetching media data (stalled)
onsuspendNew script Script to be run when the browser has been fetching media data, but stopped before the entire media file was fetched
ontimeupdateNew script Script to be run when media changes its playing position
onvolumechangeNew script Script to be run when media changes the volume, also when volume is set to "mute"
onwaitingNew script Script to be run when media has stopped playing, but is expected to resume